Please forward this error screen to 172. What exactly do we mean place of religion in the modern world essay we say “the West”? We generally refer to a geographic area the core of which is Europe and North America after the sixteenth century. Sometimes we add Australia and less frequently Latin America.
From wars in the Middle East, those with insight can already hear the sounds of the shattering and fall of the ideology and thoughts of the liberal democratic systems. Not works of mainstream modern art. Bashir Shihab II, but intensive contribution and bring to light religious history on Singapore. When we pray, we need to visit another culture to rest from ours, these works have a great deal of material regarding the history and contemporary practices of the Church of Satan. Thanks in no small part to Lovelock’s lobbying, or the German nation, he advocated a return to tradition and was made curator of the Imperial Museum.
Latin America is seen to be some kind of a mixture of the West and the Nonwest. Usually, we include the Classical Antiquity of Greece and Rome, but not the European Middle Ages, or ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. The epicenter of the “West” is actually even smaller, being limited to the civilization of western Europe and some of the U. Non-geographically, the “West” is also the concept of a scientific and technological culture that has come to colonize the “Nonwest”—politically, economically, militarily and ideologically—over the last four centuries. The West has had a dominating world discourse for so long because its scientific and technological approach revolutionized the relationship of humans to nature and to one another. This is what we call “modernity”.
The concept of modernity is confused in the West because aspects of industrial culture are indissolubly blended with western ideological values. To put it another way, modernity happened in the world in western clothes—it could have happened in another guise, perhaps East Asian, and that would have been another story. Modernity sowed the seeds of globalization, and globalization has resulted in the emergence of the Nonwest away from the actual and ideological domination of the West. Indian Bollywood films than American Hollywood ones. Nonwesterners are relating to each other without the mediation of the West. This essay is about some of the shifting western attitudes towards nonwestern arts and cultures especially in the last century.
Until fairly recently, the West looked on the Nonwest as exotic—that is, as something not quite normal from its point of view, alternating between admiration for or denigration of it. Despite the patronizing tone of much western commentary, the West appears to have needed its idea of the Nonwest in order to define its own identity as always in opposition to it. They saw nonwesterners as potentially split between “authentic” native and modern aspects, which is ironic because they have been unable to see themselves as split between their modernity and westernness. I will discuss this western process of “nativization” in the second half of this essay. Modernization has progressed so far in the arts that many of the works of nonwesterners are indistinguishable from the works of western artists, thus wiping out the difference between west and Nonwest entirely in this realm. Nonwest dichotomy is, therefore, in the process of ceasing to exist in the twenty-first century.
Yet the story of the paradigm shifts of how this came about is worth telling. Greeks, the Egyptians were a mysterious, ancient civilization who did everything in reverse, the Scythians bloody barbarians, the Persians contemporary powers to emulate and beware of, and the Chinese perhaps only an indirect myth. The West, in the form of Classical Antiquity, was then at the very edge of a great world Oriental system and its reaction to others was both to criticize and to admire. To them, the Orient was the equivalent of the Nonwest. The word “Orientalism,” as Said and others use it, is a western denigrating attitude towards the Orient as a place of tyranny, irrationality, laziness, effeminacy and unchanging-ness. Paradoxically these negative traits can also be seen as positive in reaction to the West’s own sense of its mechanical rationality, lack of spirituality, creativity and a human dimension. Both types of Orientalism were current in ancient Greece.